Cavalli Liquid Gold X (LauX) technical measurements Standard Prologue If you are unfamiliar with audio measurements please use a search engine with the query: "audio measurements" or "audio measurement handbook" Look for publications by Richard C. Cabot and also by Bob Metzler, both from Audio Precision. There are other useful publications as well. These will provide basic knowledge. Interpretation of the following measurements is beyond the scope of technical measurements posts. The data presented were collected as follows: 1. PrismSound dScope III, picoscope 5243B, Keysight 34465A, Micsig DP10013 balanced probe 2. Balanced XLR cables Belden 1800F with Neutrik 110R AES connectors (if used) 3. Single Ended cables Audioblast HQ-1 1.5 ft with Rean RCA connectors 4. 30 and 300 ohm loads used for measurements 5. dScope analyzer sample rate 48 KHz unless otherwise noted 6. 0dBu level used for testing unless otherwise noted 7. Amplifier input to output gain set to achieve 0 dB unless otherwise noted 8. Audioquest Forest and Schiit Pyst USB cables used with measurement equipment 9. Vaunix Lab Brick USB hub 10. Shielded 14AWG and 16AWG power cables 11. LAuX gain switch set to low gain unless otherwise noted Measurements made in accordance with AES17:2015 Sensitivity data for two headphones to keep in mind while viewing these measurements: HD 650 impedance 300R, sensitivity 98 dB/mW HE-500 impedance 38R, sensitivity 89 dB/mW SPL levels for above headphones for reference: 0 dBu 300R 2.00 mW - 101 dBSPL @ 98dB/mW 0 dBu 30R 20.00 mW - 102 dBSPL @ 89dB/mW All testing performed at 0 dBu unless otherwise noted. This level is consistent with listening to headphones (referenced above) at 90 dBSPL average with peaks to 100 dBSPL, if the music has 10 dB Peak to Avg ratio. That is LOUD for long listening sessions. Cavalli Liquid Gold X (LauX) Measurements commenced after 1 hour of warmup. Measurements sets were performed over a period of several days, three measurement sets taken over several months. Index Post 1 - measurement setup description, highlights Post 2 - 300 ohm load Bal input Bal output Post 3 - 30 ohm load Bal input Bal output Post 4 - 300 ohm load SE input SE output Post 5 - 30 ohm load SE input SE output Post 6 - reserved for corrections or additional data Setup picture: Listening picture: Output Impedance measured: Bal 300R: 0.18 ohm Bal 30R: 0.17 ohm SE 300R: 0.18 ohm SE 30R: 0.19 ohm Notable highlights: Liquid Gold X (LAuX) has been optimized for balanced operation. It provides great performance Single Ended but clearly best performance is attained in balanced mode. If contemplating this amplifier, balanced headphone cables will prove a wise choice. LAuX falls squarely in the transparent design camp. Attributes of low output impedance, low residual noise, low distortion, high bandwidth, fast transient response definitely contribute to extraordinarily clean performance. Typical of Cavalli designs bandwidth is quite wide, DC to > 500KHz with 30R load and DC to > 600KHz with 300R load. Dynamic Range is greater than 113 dB relative to 0 dBu in balanced mode. Note particularly the exceptionally low IMD for all two tone tests, not just 19+20 KHz which is impressive. Note too, the fast square wave response transitions times do not ring, also very impressive. Dr. Cavalli has earned a well deserved reputation for amplifier design excellence.