Black pepper has flavour; white pepper just has heat. (comparatively) I remember seeing a flatmate taking my jar of cayenne out of the cupboard, and suspecting that she thought it was paprika. I told her just in time! I have a bottle of liquid extract of cayenne. Realised it must be about forty years old. They say the shelf life of such things is a couple of years, but this stuff certainly has not lost its punch. It is not for cooking: it is for medicine. 'Specific,' in Western herbal medicine, for laryngitis and sore throat. When I first tried it, I thought, liquid extract, right... 15 drops in a little water... When I'd finished holding my mouth under the cold tap, I realised I talk clearly and the throat pain had gone. Anyway, I settled for around three drops in future.